LATAR BELAKANG PENYALINAN
Teringat pada saat dialog singkat pada saat studi literatur berkaitan dengan Sistem Pendidikan Berbasis Produksi tahun 1999, selalu terfikirkan oleh saya makna yang tersirat dari dialog tersebut:
- Pendidikan itu mahal dan akan berbanding lurus dengan biaya yang dibutuhkan. Namun tidak dapat diartikan bahwa jika ‘sumbangan dana keci’ maka kualitas pendidikan pun akan berkurang. Beberapa terobosan inovatif akan diperlukan dan dapat diartikan sebagai sebuah tantangan.
- Studi banding mutlak dilakukan terhadap sistem pendidikan jalur profesional di negara-negara yang telah mengimplementasikannya. Namun dengan keterbatasan dana yang ada dan berkembang pesatnya teknologi informasi, maka bentuk ‘bench marking’ dapat disederhanakan tanpa harus melakukan ‘lawatan=melancong’ ke negara-negara yang lebih dahulu menerapkannya. Karena di negara kitapun, telah banyak perguruan-perguruan tinggi besar yang telah melakukannya. Sehingga penyederhanaan kata ‘bench marking’ dapat disederhanakan.
- Kita telah memahami bahwa terjadi pengelompokkan perguruan tinggi berdasarkan keunggulannya, kekhususannya, ketenarannya. Kondisi tersebut dapat diartikan bahwa mereka-mereka lah yang akan membina beberapa perguruan tinggi yang berada di bawahnya. Tak bisa kita berpendapat bahwa kita akan melampaui mereka, namun ‘kerjasama, keharmonisan, saling silih asuh’, menjadi kata kunci untuk memajukan pendidikan Global yang ada di Indonesia secara bersama (karena skematik pendidikan tinggi melalui renstra telah ditetapkan). Bak seperti lakon pewayangan, mari kita bermain peran sesuai dengan peranan kita masing-masing.
- Kita harus menyadari bahwa pemerintah kita ‘amat sangat terbatas sekali’ dalam hal pendanaan perguruan tinggi yang ada (walaupun di UUD 45 merupakan hak anak bangsa untuk mendapatkan pendidikan yang merata). Namun hal tersebut bukanlah kartu mati yang kita berpasrah kepadanya, karena kita yakin bahwa anugrah fikiran akan membawa kita untuk menerobos dimensi ruang dan waktu.
- Seringkali (bahkan sudah menjadi kebiasaan yang salah kaprah) bahwa penjaringan tenaga kerja seringkali dikaitkan dengan Indeks Prestasi Lulusan (angka-angka yang dianggap menunjukkan prestasi seseorang). Namun pernahkah ‘mereka / pelaku industri’ berfikir bahwa maju atau tidaknya pendidikan anak bangsa merupakan kewajiban mereka pula untuk berkontribusi di dalamnya. Akan terasa aneh jika kita menginginkan sesuatu yang lebih baik, namun disisi lainnya tidak ada upaya ataupun kontribusi nyata yang kita lakukan ?
- Di sisi lainnya, pelaku/penyelenggara pendidikan tinggi pun tidak perlu arogan dengan menyatakan bahwa saya bisa berjalan tanpa bantuan pengguna lulusan = dunia industri. Karena kita tahu bahwa dengan keterbatasan dana yang ada di perguruan tinggi, maka akan menyebabkan kesulitan bagi institusi pendidikan tinggi untuk mengejar ketertinggalan teknologi yang cenderung berkembang pesat. Melalui industrilah kita dapat meneropong ke arah mana perkembangan teknologi aplikatif di masa yang akan datang. Sehingga kolaborasi antara penyelenggara pendidikan dan pengguna lulusan mutlak dilakukan.
- Munculnya suatu teorema ataupun inovasi, seringkali dilatarbelakangi oleh asumsi ‘KONDISI IDEAL’. Hal tersbut menunjukkan bahwa kondisi terebut ‘tak lekang oleh masa ataupun waktu’. Pendekatan-pendekatan sesuai zamanlah yang akan membedakan orientasi pencapaiannya. Termasuk di dalamnya salah satu inovasi ‘Production Based Education’. Yang menjadi salah satu alternatif ‘efektivitas dan efisiensi’ pengelolaan dana yang ada di perguruan tinggi. Namun, hal tersebut tidak dapat dilakukan secara ‘parsial’, dan harus dilakukan secara ‘terintegrasi’ karena pelaku-pelakunya dibatasi oleh dimensi waktu dan ruang.
Melalui latar belakang tersebut, saya mencoba untuk menampilkan kembali secara utuh tulisan berikut (tidak mengubah sesuatupun dari tulisan aslinya). Dan tentunya ditujukan untuk memajukan pendidikan anak bangsa. Seringkali saya mengistilahkan koleksi beberapa tulisan dengan nama “Catatan dari beberapa dokumen sepuh yang masih relevan”.
MANUFACTURING INTEGRATED EDUCATION
A Quality Education Innovation
The Bandung Polytechnic for Manufacturing -
Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia
International Symposium at Qualification Asia ‘97, Jakarta 25 – 27 June 1997
by : Hadiwaratama, Ir., M.Sc.E.
Senior Member of SME ( USA )
Senior Prof. Engineer – Institution of Engineers, Indonesia
Director of the Bandung Polytechnic for Manufacturing
Jl. Ir. H. Juanda ( Kpl. Kanayakan ), Tromol Pos 851, Bandung 40008, Indonesia
If most of the speakers during this symposium are focusing more on the implementation of the “ dual system “ in vocational education and training in their respective countries, in this opportunity may I talk further beyond the dual system into Integrating Education in the industry.
In particular I would present here our experience in integrating the higher technician education in the manufacturing sector.
This new approach is basically a production driven – industry based education, a transformation from practical based education into production based education incorporated in the manufacturing business.
To avoid misunderstanding let us define first what do we mean by manufacturing which has been widely used in both industry and academia.
Manufacturing is a set of correlated operations and activities which includes product development and design, material selection and supply, all necessary planning, production, inspection, organization and management, and marketing & sales of product for manufacturing industry.
Manufacturing production is a series of processes adopted to fabricate a product, and such processes exclude the activities for designing, planning and controlling the production.
Manufacturing processes are the lower-level manufacturing activities used to make products. There are traditional machining processes, for example turning, milling, and grinding, and more advanced nonchipping processes, for example, electro chemical machining ( ECM ) and electro-discharge machining ( EDM ).
Manufacturing engineering involves the design, operation, and control of manufacturing processes ( planning, scheduling, as well as control of the manufacturing production and batch quality ). It is the heart of design, planning, and control of the manufacturing system and requires knowledge from other disciplines, such as electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, materials engineering, chemical engineering and systems / information engineering.
Manufacturing system is an organization that comprises several interrelated manufacturing subsets. Its objective is to interface with outside production functions in order to customized the total productivity performance of the system, such as production time, cost, and machine utilization. The activity of these subsets include design, planning, manufacturing, and control. These subsets are also connected with production function, outside the system, such as accounting, marketing, financing, and personnel.
2. Manufacturing Enterprise
Manufacturing Enterprise is an economic entity seeking for profit through value adding processes of materials using properly selected technology. Added value is a function of technology, the higher the added value we are looking for the higher the technological input we need.
The following diagram explains main problems of manufacturing enterprise, in which Total Factor Productivity, which is defined as the difference between the rate of output value and the average rate of input value, will influence the sustainability and growth of the enterprise.
3. Education is a Teaching – Learning Process
Education is generally a transfer / acquisition of knowledge and skills and all its values from a resource to a recipient through various sets of processes.
Traditionally a more interactive processes are as follow :
- Knowledge transfer through theory class room teaching
- Digestion of knowledge through homework, assignments and tutorial
- Validation of knowledge through laboratory experiments
- Professional / Skills development through practical exercises, project works or other application activities related to the acquired knowledge
- Well programmed, with well defined curriculum relevant to the job market or competency standards
- Well staffed, with appropriate qualification
- Well equipped, with machinery and equipment which are well maintained and in good running condition
- Well financed, with sufficient amount of cash flow
- Well managed through lean and agile organization
- Having good student body
But most of all is the interacting processes among those components or the Teaching – Learning process which will decide the outcome of education and training, exactly like the manufacturing process.
4. Education and Training Pathway of Indonesia
Indonesian National Education System is based on the National Law No. 2, 1989, which is illustrated in the diagram below.
It consists of 9 year basic education, 3 year secondary education ( general and vocational ), and the tertiary education. The tertiary education consists of two streams ie : Academic and Professional.
The academic stream consists of 4 year Stratum 1 ( S1) equivalent to Bachelor, Stratum 2 ( S2 ) or Master and Stratum 3 ( S3 ) or Doctorate.
The Professional streams consists of Diploma’s ( D1, D2, D3 and D4 ), Specialist 1 and Specialist 2. The training has various levels and conducted in the training institution and in industry.
Life-long learning should be the basis for the continuous professional development. This scheme should be made available that people already on the job can continue develop their career through enhancement of competence in a well organized manner. This can be for the individual interest as well as for the company interest especially when they are confronted with the new technology which the company has adopted.
The following diagram illustrates degree of competencies within the industrial job profiles.
6. Matching Education and Manufacturing
As education has various levels and streams, while manufacturing technology has its own process flow, it is therefore necessary to match between the two. The following diagram explains where education levels and streams relate and complement each other and fit in the manufacturing pipeline.
It is self explanatory where is the domain of each level and stream of the education with regard to manufacturing and its respective competencies. With this scheme in mind, the unnecessary duplication of programs between levels and streams can be avoided, while a more complementary programs could be well developed.
7. Integrating Education and Manufacturing
From the previous diagrams, integrating education and manufacturing means looking for common denominators between the two.
Inputs which are common :
- People : - Students
- Competent instructors / teachers
- Capital : - Manufacturing machinery & equipment and Engg. Softwares
- Materials : - Manufacturing & Educational Materials
Common processes :
- Planning : - Manufacturing and Course Implementation
- Implementation : - Design Process
- Production Process
- Education Process
- Control : - All controls related to quality, materials, cost etc. in Production Process
- All controls related to quality of education based on the specified competencies to be achieved.
- Competitive Quality Products
- People with relevant competence to job market
The integration takes place through adjusting the practical exercises of the education which will be then slotted in the manufacturing, be it in the design, the production process or in the quality control.
This slotting of education program into manufacturing is based on the degree of complexity and accuracy of product, which are reflected from its function, geometrical forms & dimensions, material composition and its production processes. The higher the year of education the higher the degree of complexity and accuracy of product and processes.
The instructors become superintendents, supervisors, foremen, or group leaders of the student workers. These practical exercises are no more structured rigidly as in the conventional simulation teaching. Basic skills training still has to be done in a separate time schedule, although it may use the same production facilities, to avoid mistakes and rejects of product.
Competency based curriculum is the main guidelines in distributing jobs to students with respect to level or year of each stream according to the production schedule and processes. How much a practical exercise can be integrated into production scheme depends on the character of each stream and the year of education.
A three year diploma education like POLMAN – ITB where the course composition consists of 40% theoretical subjects and 60% practical exercises & laboratory works to deliver technologist in manufacturing may vary from stream to stream. In Foundry for instance, where the process involves simultaneously various levels of skills and knowledge, the practical exercise integration into production may reach 70% for 1st year and 100% for 2nd and 3rd year students.
In Mechanics and Pattern Making it varies from the 1st year of only 25%, 2nd year up to 75% and 3rd year up to 100% in production. Meanwhile in the design & drafting the proportion can be even smaller ie 1st year 25% ( copyist work ), 2nd year up to 50% ( copyist and drafting work ) and 3rd year up to 100% ( drafting and design assistant work ), while the designers and the chief designer / design engineer are the instructors.
Contextual learning plays significant role in this production based learning due to need presure. Quality of product and quality of work are not only controlled by the school, but more important is also controlled and decided by the third party, the customers.
The outcome of education may have different focus of competence from one student to the other or even from year to year. It depends on the product they are doing because it is not possible to give everyone the same product and same exercise. It very much depends on the products being develop and designed for fulfilling competitively the market needs or depends on the selected job received from customers ( job order ) which varies from time to time.
If jobs are within the scope of the minimum competence specified by the curriculum, then we do not have to worry. If it is more than the minimum level of competence then it is good for enrichment.
Only whenever the jobs are below the minimum level of competence, then we should give additional exercise as it is demanded by the curriculum. It can be best organized in a modular forms that we can identify precisely the gaps and the modules to fill it. These modules should specify clearly the competence to be achieved, the knowledge / theory, the practical exercise / job sheets, materials, tools, machines and time of accomplishment ( duration in hours ).
The following diagram illustrates the different competency focuses.
Students A, B and C have reached different levels of skill on the training subjects 1, 2, 3 and 4. All students have passed the minimum level of skill stated in the curriculum.
8. Transformation towards Teaching Industry : the POLMAN – ITB Experience
When we integrate Education into Manufacturing, a transformation process has to be made from a pure education into a teaching industry. Our experience follows several steps of development.
At the beginning of the POLMAN – ITB establishment in mid 70th , we started with a very strong practical based education, with well structured theoretical subjects and uniform practical exercises for all students ( 1975 – 1980 ). After we fully acquired the basic manufacturing technological skills, we started to introduce saleable goods for the student skills training, such as vices, gauges, tool components, as well start receiving orders of simple products from industry such as simple mould, simple dies, textile weaving components etc.
These production activities increases especially after our instructors had returned from further training in industry in Switzerland. The growing confidence from industry customer to our products contributed bigger challenge and opportunity for us to further increase our production activities. As the job from industry was flowing more and more in numbers and variety, and it is getting more difficult to cope especially for time delivery, meanwhile we have still to follow standard structured educational program, it is therefore we decided to establish separate production unit, which was fully manned by full time workers and managed separately from the main educational workshape ( 1982 ). Students are only doing component production which fit to the structured exercises to support the production unit. We also established a design bureau to support the production unit, separated from our drafting and design education studio.
As the jobs are getting bigger and bigger in numbers and variety, it then overflows to our educational sections and influence more and more our structured exercises. It was then when we decided to transform our practical based education into production based education. We review the whole structured exercises and transformed it into a flexible exercises scheme according to job planning and required competencies. The production unit is integrated into the whole workshops, except the design unit ( 1990 ).
In the meantime in 1988 we also started full production based education in Foundry. When the business was getting bigger and bigger, we decided to develop further our production based education into Production Driven Industry Based Education, a full integration philosophy of education into manufacturing business ( 1996 )
Restructuring the organization is the first logical step towards this new scheme, preceded by a year analysis and preparation work ( 1995 ).
Organization : As a higher education institution, POLMAN’s organization shall accommodate activities referred to Tridharma Perguruan Tinggi (Triple Missions). The organization structure, on the other hand should allow expansion of industrial activities. Therefore, the structure and job functions of several sub-organizations are reformed.
Main parameters of the building of the new organization structure are:
1) PP 30/1990 ( Government Regulation )
2) flexibility to accommodate production and business activities
3) empowering all resources
4) efficiency and effectively
POLMAN’s new organization structure is then defined in 3 main parts:
1) Centers as Pullers
2) Divisions / Departments as Core, to make things running
3) Units as Supporters.
Centers : The main function of the Centers is to manage activities on developments and industrial services. Centers’ will define specifications and programs, which will be executed by divisions / departments. The centers are matrix sub-organizations which work with commissions and project teams staffed by professionals from divisions / departments.
There are three centers:
1) Center for Education to do Academic Planning, Control and Development, job function:
- formulating curricula, syllabi, education program
- academic administration
- Education innovation
2) Center for Engineering and System Development
- Product development : design and engineering
- Mfg. System development
3) Center for Industrial Services
- public relation
- marketing (market analysis and market strategy)
- customer service & sales
- planning and control the internal program execution
Division / Department and Unit : Division /Department is the core organization, which carry out the education, manufacturing production & process and prototyping. The divisions / departments have adequate facility and supported by qualified personnel. Division / Department specific section consists of shop floor planning and control, production execution and quality control. Division in the industrial context means department in the educational context.
Unit can be a supporting organization to render service and support in all activities carried out by centers or divisions / departments. The Unit can also be part of division or center.
Supporting units consist of among others purchasing and logistic, facility maintenance, library, multi media etc.
Quality Assurance System : The various activities in the matrix organization require a management system to assure that all jobs are done according to standard, so that the quality of the output (product and service) conforms to the requirements. Therefore, POLMAN commits to implement the quality management system of ISO 9000.
The quality system ISO 9000 requires, that all activities done are conforming to the defined procedures, recorded, identified and traceable. The system manages what, when, where, why, and how things are done and who is responsible for each activity
By implementing this quality management system, POLMAN will assure, that the output conforms with the standard requirements. The implementation of standards should be readily expanded to ISO 14000, ISO 18000, etc.
Human Resource : To back up the defined programs, the need of personnel with high professional competence & skill or special qualifications is inevitable. POLMAN has set the D3 Polytechnic formal education as minimum qualification for all personnel involved in education, production and engineering programs. Inspite of that, they are only involved in specific technical execution in the production. To be qualified for supporting PD-IBE, 40 – 50% of staffs should posses one or two qualification levels higher than D3.
Internal training becomes mandatory. All employees must take Quality Awareness Internal Training in addition to other specific technical internal training. All development activities will be done matrically by committee, project team or task force. With this system POLMAN is starting to implement Total Quality Management.
Infrastructure and Facility : POLMAN’s program can only be run optimally with the support of adequate facility and infrastructure. The minimum competency could be reached if one machine, computer or other facilities, in practical program are provided for every student or trainee. People work in a team, concurrent engineering or production becomes the daily practice at POLMAN.
Facilities must be regularly calibrated, every nonconformity must be recorded in quality documentation system and corrective action must be taken. The diagrams in the Annexes illustrate our operation and organization
Rapid development of manufacturing technology forces POLMAN to update its facility. Some conventional facilities have to be replaced by automatic and programmable one or even by intelligent technology.
9. Conclusion : The lesson learned
The Manufacturing Integrated Education is a Production Driven-Industry Based Education through an integration of education, product development, design and production activities in a business environment. The business environment is driven by the market. A lead-strategy has to be formulated in conjunction with the market. Customer focus, market nitch, market segment or which ever option to be chosen will decide the following action to be taken. POLMAN-ITB has chosen the Manufacturing Tools and high quality casting as the product leadership, while the service leadership is in quality education & training and consultation in Manufacturing Technology.
POLMAN’s experience shows that all parameter of this concept implementation can be organized optimally and successfully. The POLMAN’s revenue from saleable products is used to cover the educational cost, maintenance of facilities and human resource development. Up to this stage revenues can contribute for minor additional investment, while through lean management effort leading towards agile organization may boost our capacity to invest. This is where POLMAN is restructuring its organization towards a lean agile one.
With this manufacturing integrated education POLMAN – ITB can fill the gap between the government input and the necessary operational fund to run quality education. In general we generate 80% while the government input constitutes of up to 20% of the total revenues of the school. Staffs and teachers salary can be increased up to average 400% on top of the normal government salary scale. This topping up of salary makes us comparable to the private industry salary scale. Despite that topping up effort, losses of teaching staffs can still happen especially if there is new investment in manufacturing industry. This is due to imbalance between supply and demand of experienced qualified manpower.
We conclude that running education program to provide professional technician in industry does not necessarily be a cost center. Moreover, professional education program can also become the responsibility of and implemented by industry in general to accelerate competitiveness of a country.
Jakarta, 27 June 1997
- Hadiwaratama : “ Production Driven – Industry Based Education “. 20 years Polytechnic Education Seminar,
Bandung, 16 – 17 December 1996
2. Skills towards 2020 : “ Taskforce Interim Report on The Development of Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia ”
3. Thin Ching Chang : “ Computer Aided Manufacturing. “, 1994
MANUFACTURING INTEGRATED EDUCATION
A Quality Education Innovation at
The Bandung Polytechnic for Manufacturing
Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia
International Symposium on Dual System Vocational Education and Training
at Qualification Asia ’97, Jakarta 25 – 27 June 1997